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1. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a collective presidency that alternates among three members (one Croat, one Bosniak Muslim, and one Serb).
2. Czechia is now the official short-form name of the Czech Republic.
3. Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia in 2008. As of May 2020, it had been recognized by more than 100 countries, including the U.S.
4. Formerly Macedonia
5. Does not include Crimea (estimated population: 2 million), a former Ukrainian territory that was annexed by Russia in 2014
6. Formerly Swaziland
7. Does not include Hong Kong and Macau
8. Does not include separate Turkish Cypriot–controlled area in the north
9. Includes Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territory of the West Bank
10. Dodoma is set to become the sole capital in 2020.
Area: Encyclopaedia Britannica
Population, urban population, percent of population under 15 years, life expectancy: Toshiko Kaneda and Genevieve Dupuis, 2017 World Population Data Sheet (Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 2017)
Capital, date of origin, annual population increase, literacy rate, per capita GDP: The World Factbook (Central Intelligence Agency)
Languages: The World Factbook; World Book Encyclopedia
Political system: Based on information from Freedom in the World 2017 (Freedom House), Encyclopaedia Britannica, and news accounts
Heads of government: Based on information from the GeoCities “Rulers” website (, The World Factbook, and news accounts
HDI: Human Development Report 2016 (United Nations Development Program)